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Diabetes 101 - Part 2

In Diabetes 101 (Part 1): the Basics, We commonly know of Diabetes as Type 1 or type 2, showing signs of raised blood glucose. Now we will dive deeper into some of the rare forms of diabetes, diagnosis and possible treatments.

Did you know?

There are 6 kinds of rare form of diabetes, some unheard of, some with lacking local statistics. They are mainly:

  1. Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY)

  2. Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA)

  3. Neonatal Diabetes

  4. Wolfram syndrome

  5. Alstrom syndrome

  6. Type 3c diabetes

Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY)

Caused by a mutation of a single gene, a child of an affected parent will have a 50% chance of getting it. The affected child usually develops MODY before the age of 25 regardless of weight, lifestyle habits or ethnic group. People with MODY may not necessarily require insulin treatments.

Testing for MODY usually involves blood tests for genetic testing, blood tests for pancreatic antibodies or blood/urine tests for C-peptide.

Latent Autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA)

This is the type of diabetes that sits between type 1 and type 2. LADA comes on slower than type 1 (over months rather than weeks), and comes on more quickly when compared to type 2. In type 2 diabetes, a main indicator would be high body weight. People with LADA tends to be of healthy weight. Some symptoms include:

  • passing urine a lot

  • feeling very thirsty

  • getting very tired

  • losing weight.

If you have LADA, you will have antibodies in your blood that are usually found in type 1 diabetes. People diagnosed with LADA are usually in the age range of 30-50 years old.

Suspecting you or someone you love may have Diabetes? Contact us now to book an evaluation.

Neonatal diabetes

Diabetes that is diagnosed under the age of 6 months. it is caused by a change in gene, which in turn affects insulin production. this form of diabetes is very rare, even in the western part of the world (less than 100 in the UK). statistics shows that 20% of diagnosed cases show signs of developmental delays. treatment of neonatal diabetes is usually in the form of medication.

Wolfram syndrome

This is a rare genetic disorder also known as DIDMOAD (diabetes insipidus diabetes mellitus optic atrophy and deafness). it is so rare that it only affects 1 in 770 000 people in the western world, or 1 in 500 000 children.

Diabetes insipidus: the body can’t concentrate urine due to the posterior pituitary gland not making enough vasopressin. you will feel very thirsty and frequent need to pass urine, which is very diluted.

Diabetes mellitus: a different type of diabetes that is similar to Type 1, needing insulin injections, but not an autoimmune condition. conditions like microvascular or nephropathy is not seen.

Optic atrophy: Optic nerve wasted away, causing color blindness and leading to visual loss.

Deafness: difficulty hearing high pitch sounds or to hear in crowded room.

Alstrom syndrome

Another rare form of diabetes, it is estimated that there are only 700 cases worldwide. Its features include retinal degeneration, hearing loss, cardiomyopathy, obesity, type 2 diabetes, renal failure and orthopedic rheumatology problems. With no definite cure, various symtoms of this disease can be treated with lifestyle changes, medications, hearing aids, wearing sunglasses or kidney dialysis if needed.

Type 3c

Unlike type 1 or type 2 diabetes, type 3c occurs when there is damage or medical conditions relating to the pancreas. some conditions include:

  • Pancreatitis

  • pancreatic cancer

  • cystic fibrosis

  • haemochromatosis

  • removal of pancreas due to illness and surgery

Your doctor should be aware if you have a history of pancreatic issues if testing for diabetes. this allows them to give accurate diagnosis.

Check in with us or your endocrinologist if you are still unsure.

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